Enhancement of NMR signals by ‘dissolution’ dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)

Enhancement of weak NMR signals by ‘dissolution’ dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in liquids: instrumental developments

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Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization consists in enhancing nuclear polarization of a substance of interest in a frozen glassy matrix containing radicals by saturating the EPR transitions at very low temperatures and extracting the resulting hyperpolarized substance by rapid heating to room temperature with a burst of superheated water.
DNP is commonly used to boost the polarization of nuclei with low gyromagnetic ratios. Acceleration of the DNP process is particularly desirable in a clinical context, where the injection of hyperpolarized pyruvate allows one to monitor its metabolism, which is greatly enhanced in prostate cancer. By transferring polarization from the electron spins to protons, followed by Hartmann−Hahn cross polarization, the DNP process can be greatly accelerated, while much higher levels of polarization can be achieved.

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